Download Manual Of Refraction

May 28, 2019  A subjective refraction is the refraction that the patient likes the most. /download-free-games-for-android-devices.html. An objective refractions is the refraction that the AR thinks would be good for the patient based on the measurements made. Manifest refractometry is acquired by asking the patients which series of lenses they prefer. This requires a phoropter. The average refraction with a manual phoropeter lasts 8-10 minutes; with Eye Refract, that gets cut down to less than 4minutes, giving you more time to spend interacting with your patient, and less time stressing your back and shoulder leaning over a manual phoropter. It covers the complete range of wave data (seismic, GPR, ultrasound) and the different geometry assemblings (surface reflection and refraction, borehole crosshole and tomography and combination of borehole and surface measurements).You may also have a look at a one side broschure for GPR, reflections seismics, refraction seismics and borehole application.

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A United States Navy optometrist technician using an autorefractor during a humanitarian assistance project in Nicaragua in 2008

An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.



The majority of autorefractors calculate the vision correction a patient needs (refraction) by using sensors that detect the reflections from a cone of infrared light. These reflections are used to determine the size and shape of a ring in the retina which is located in the posterior part of the eye. By measuring this zone, the autorefractor can determine when a patient’s eye properly focuses an image. The instrument changes its magnification until the image comes into focus. The process is repeated in at least three meridians of the eye and the autorefractor calculates the refraction of the eye, sphere, cylinder and axis. Modern autorefractors are based on the idea patented by Medina.[1]


In some offices, this process is used to provide the starting point for the ophthalmologist or optometrist in subjective refraction tests. Here, lenses are switched in and out of a phoropter and the patient is asked 'which looks better' while looking at a chart. This feedback refines the prescription to one which provides the patient with the best vision.

Automated refraction is particularly useful when dealing with non-communicative people such as young children or those with disabilities.


Download Manual Of Refraction

Retinoscopy performed by an experienced clinician has been found to provide a more accurate estimation of refractive error than autorefraction.[2] Recent studies report that autorefractor measurements without application of cycloplegia medication can result in significant overestimation of myopia.[3][4]


  1. ^'Medina A.: 'Refractometro Electronico (Electronic Refractor)'. Spanish patent. Jul 1979'(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  2. ^Jorge J, Queiros A, Almeida JB, Parafita MA. 'Retinoscopy/autorefraction: which is the best starting point for a noncycloplegic refraction?' Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;82(1):64-8. PMID15630406.
  3. ^Choong YF, Chen AH, Goh PP.: A comparison of autorefraction and subjective refraction with and without cycloplegia in primary school children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;142(1):68-74. PMID16815252.
  4. ^Fotedar R, Rochtchina E, Morgan I, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Rose KA.: Necessity of cycloplegia for assessing refractive error in 12-year-old children: a population-based study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Aug;144(2):307-9. PMID17659966.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Autorefractors.

How To Do Manual Refraction

  • Trusit Dave 'Automated refraction - Design and applications' in 'Optometry Today' 04/06/04 [1]
  • 'This Company Is Bringing Eye Exams (And Glasses) To People Who Can't Afford Healthcare'. Read about Smart Vision Labs in 'Business Insider' 09/29/14 [2]
  • PIKE Ophthalmic, image.[3]

Manual Refraction Simulator

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