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Android 8.1 (API level 27) introduces a variety ofnew features and capabilities for users and developers.This document highlights what's new for developers.

Android Oreo (Go edition)

Android Go is our initiative to optimize the Android experience forbillions of people coming online around the world. Starting with Android 8.1,we’re making Android a great platform for entry-level devices. Features in the Android Oreo(Go edition) configuration include:

  • Memory optimizations. Improved memory usage across the platform to ensurethat apps can run efficiently on devices with 1GB or less RAM.
  • Flexible targeting options. Newhardware featureconstants to let you target the distribution of your apps to normal or low-RAM devices throughGoogle Play.
  • Google Play.While all apps will be available on devices running Android Oreo(Go edition), Google Play will give visibility to apps specifically optimized by developersto provide a great experience for billions of people with the building for billionsguidelines.

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We’ve updated the building for billionsguidelines with additional guidance on how tooptimize your app for devices runningAndroid Oreo (Go edition). For most developers, optimizing your existing APK or usingGoogle Play’s Multiple APK feature to target a version of your APK to low-RAM devicesis the best way to prepare for devices running Android Oreo (Go edition). Remember that making yourapp lighter and more efficient benefits your whole audience, regardless of device.

Neural Networks API

The Neural Networks API provides accelerated computation and inference for on-device machinelearning frameworks like TensorFlowLite—Google's cross-platform ML library for mobile—as well as Caffe2 and others. Visit the TensorFlow Liteopen sourcerepo for downloads and docs.TensorFlow Lite works with the Neural Networks API to run models likeMobileNets,Inception v3,and Smart Reply efficiently on your mobile device.

Autofill framework updates

Android 8.1 (API level 27) provides several improvements to the AutofillFramework that you can incorporate into your apps.

The BaseAdapterclass now includes the setAutofillOptions()method, which allows you to provide string representations of the values in anadapter. This is useful for spinnercontrols that dynamically generate the values in their adapters. For example,you can use the setAutofillOptions() method to provide a stringrepresentation of the list of years that the users can choose as part of acredit card expiration date. Autofill services can use the string representationto appropriately fill out the views that require the data.

Additionally, the AutofillManagerclass includes the notifyViewVisibilityChanged(View, int, boolean) methodthat you can call to notify the framework about changes in the visibility of aview in a virtual structure. There's also an overload of the method for nonvirtual structures. However, non virtual structures usually don't require you toexplicitly notify the framework because the method is already called by theViewclass.

Android 8.1 also gives Autofill Services more ability to customize the save UIaffordance by adding support for CustomDescriptionandValidatorwithin SaveInfo.

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Custom descriptions are useful to help the autofill service clarify what isbeing saved; for example, when the screen contains a credit card, it coulddisplay a logo of the credit card bank, the last four digits of the credit cardnumber, and its expiration number. To learn more, see the CustomDescriptionclass.

Validatorobjects are used to avoid displaying the autofill save UI when the Validatorcondition isn't satisfied. To learn more, see the Validator class along with its subclasses, LuhnChecksumValidator and RegexValidator.


Android 8.1 includes the following changes to notifications:

  • Apps can now only make a notification alert sound once per second. Alert sounds that exceed this rate aren't queued and are lost. This change doesn't affect other aspects of notification behavior and notification messages still post as expected.
  • NotificationListenerService and ConditionProviderService are not supported on low-RAM Android-powered devices that return true when ActivityManager.isLowRamDevice() is called.

EditText update

Beginning with API level 27, the EditText.getText() method returns an Editable; previouslyit returned a CharSequence. This change isbackward-compatible, as Editable implementsCharSequence.

The Editable interface provides valuable additionalfunctionality. For example, because Editable alsoimplements the Spannable interface, you can apply markup tocontent within an instance of EditText.

Programmatic Safe Browsing actions

By using the WebView implementation of the Safe Browsing API, your app candetect when an instance of WebView attempts to navigateto a URL that Google has classified as a known threat. By default, theWebView shows an interstitial that warns users of the known threat.This screen gives users the option to load the URL anyway or return to aprevious page that's safe.

In Android 8.1, you can define programmatically how yourapp responds to a known threat:

  • You can control whether your app reports known threats to Safe Browsing.
  • You can have your app automatically perform a particular action—such as going back to safety—each time it encounters a URL that Safe Browsing classifies as a known threat.

Note: For optimal protection against known threats, waituntil you've initialized Safe Browsing before you invoke aWebView object's loadUrl() method.

The following code snippets show how you can instruct your app's instances ofWebView to always go back to safety after encountering aknown threat:





Video thumbnail extractor

The MediaMetadataRetriever class has a new method, getScaledFrameAtTime(), that findsa frame near a given time position and returns a bitmap with the same aspectratio as the source frame, but scaled to fit into a rectangle of given width andheight. This is useful for generating thumbnail images from video.

We recommend using this method rather than getFrameAtTime() which can waste memorybecause it returns a bitmap with the same resolution as the source video. Forexample, a frame from a 4K video would be a 16MB bitmap, far larger than youwould need for a thumbnail image.

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Shared memory API

Android 8.1 (API level 27) introduces a newSharedMemoryAPI. This class allows you to create, map, and manage an anonymousSharedMemoryinstance. You set the memory protectionon aSharedMemoryobject for reading and/or writing, and, since theSharedMemoryobject is Parcelable, you can easily pass it to another process through AIDL.

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The SharedMemoryAPI interoperates with theASharedMemory facility in the NDK.ASharedMemory gives accessto a file descriptor, which can then be mapped to read and write. It's a greatway to share large amountsof data between apps or between multiple processes within a single app.

WallpaperColors API

Android 8.1 (API level 27) allows your live wallpaper to provide colorinformation to the system UI. You do this by creating a WallpaperColorsobject from a bitmap, a drawable, or by using three manually-selected colors.You can also retrieve this color information.

To create a WallpaperColorsobject, do either of the following:

  • To create a WallpaperColorsobject by using three colors, create an instance of the WallpaperColorsclass by passing the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary color. The primarycolor must not be null.
  • To create a WallpaperColorsobject from a bitmap, call the fromBitmap()method by passing the bitmap source as parameter.
  • To create a WallpaperColorsobject from a drawable, call the fromDrawable()method by passing the drawable source as parameter.

To retrieve the primary, secondary, or tertiary color details from thewallpaper, call the following methods:

  • getPrimaryColor()returns the most visually-representativecolor of the wallpaper.
  • getSecondaryColor()returns the second most preeminent color of the wallpaper.
  • getTertiaryColor()method returns the third most preeminent color of the wallpaper.

To notify the system about any significant color changes in your live wallpaper,call the notifyColorsChanged()method. This method triggers an onComputeColors() lifecycleevent where you have an opportunity to provide a new WallpaperColorsobject.

To add a listener for color changes, you can call the addOnColorsChangedListener() method. You canalso call the getWallpaperColors() methodto retrieve the primary colors of a wallpaper.

Fingerprint updates

The FingerprintManager class hasintroduced the following error codes:

  • FINGERPRINT_ERROR_LOCKOUT_PERMANENT – The user has tried too many times to unlock their device using the fingerprint reader.
  • FINGERPRINT_ERROR_VENDOR – A vendor-specific fingerprint reader error occurred.

Cryptography updates

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A number of cryptography changes have been made with Android 8.1:

  • New algorithms have been implemented in Conscrypt. The Conscryptimplementation is preferentially used over the existing Bouncy Castleimplementation. New algorithms include:
    • AlgorithmParameters:GCM
    • KeyGenerator:AES
    • KeyGenerator:DESEDE
    • KeyGenerator:HMACMD5
    • KeyGenerator:HMACSHA1
    • KeyGenerator:HMACSHA224
    • KeyGenerator:HMACSHA256
    • KeyGenerator:HMACSHA384
    • KeyGenerator:HMACSHA512
    • SecretKeyFactory:DESEDE
    • Signature:NONEWITHECDSA
  • )'>Cipher.getParameters().getParameterSpec(IvParameterSpec.class) nolonger works for algorithms that use GCM. Instead, usegetParameterSpec(GCMParameterSpec.class).
  • Many internal Conscrypt classes associated with TLS were refactored. Sincedevelopers sometimes access these reflectively, shims have been left in place tosupport previous usage, but some details have changed. For example, socketspreviously were of type OpenSSLSocketImpl, but now they’re of typeConscryptFileDescriptorSocket orConscryptEngineSocket, both of which extendOpenSSLSocketImpl.
  • SSLSession methods used to throwIllegalArgumentException when passed a null reference, they nowthrow NullPointerException.
  • The RSA KeyFactory no longer allows generation of keysfrom byte arrays that are larger than the encoded key. Calls togeneratePrivate() andgeneratePublic() that provide aKeySpec where the key structure does not fill theentire buffer will result in an InvalidKeySpecException.
  • When a socket read is interrupted by the socket being closed, Conscrypt usedto return -1 from the read. The read now throwsSocketException.
  • The set of root CA certificates has been changed, mostly removing a largenumber of obsolete certificates, but also removing the root certificates forWoSign and StartCom. For more information on this decision, see the GoogleSecurity Blog post,Finalremoval of trust in WoSign and StartCom Certificates.

Android SDK Review

Days after Android was announced, the operating system that Google would use to make the jump to the mobile sector, its developers' toolkit was made available.

Android SDK includes the necessary utilities to help Android developers with the first few steps: different APIs developed by Google both for controlling the device's functions and for integrating services, a complete emulator for testing applications, and all the necessary reading material to help you with the first steps in programming for Android.

Android, based on Linux, uses a virtual device to run the apps, and offers support for 3G, WiFi, GPS, touch screens, and any other common-place component on high-end mobile phones today.

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